1. Select land plots and crop rotations to reduce pests and diseases
Choose pollution-free irrigation history, no pesticide residue, good surrounding environment, no "three wastes" pollution source on the top of the breeze, convenient drainage and irrigation and fertile land as a pollution-free spring cabbage production field. It is advisable to use a 2-3-year crop rotation system for land plots with non-cruciferous crops. Avoid the same pests and diseases.
2. Choose pest resistant varieties to reduce the amount of pesticides
Choose spring special varieties that are resistant to low temperature, anti-mosquito resistance, pest resistance, high yield, good quality, early maturity and good commercial quality. Such as Shaanchunbai No. 1, Luchunbai No. 1, Spring General, Chunhuang, Qiangchun, New King Kong Xia and other generations of seeds. The use of disease-resistant varieties can greatly reduce the number of spraying and reduce the amount of pesticide residues.
3, clean the garden, fine soil preparation, reduce or eliminate the source of pests and diseases
Yellow and old diseased leaves and debris are harvested in the field immediately after harvesting and before planting, and are cleared or destroyed in time to eliminate the breeding of diseases and insects overwintering or transfer to the host to reduce the number of diseases and insects. Before wintering, deep plowing and winter irrigation of vegetable fields can both improve weathered soil and eradicate germs and overwintering pests in the soil. After the spring, combined with site preparation, the basal fertilizer was re-applied with 2,000 m 2 kg of chicken manure applied per 667 m 2 of full compost, 30 kg of high-efficiency compound fertilizer and 10-15 kg of urea. Then the earthwork is done, so that the ground is flat and the earth is broken. Mere film cultivation using flat or sorghum. Generally, it is 1m wide, 10~15cm high, and 25~30cm wide. For each row of 2 rows, spacing is 50cm, plant spacing is 30~40cm, 3000~3500 plants are transplanted per 667m2.
4, timely sowing, scientific colonization, implementation of early thermal insulation and cultivation to prevent pest invasion and damage
Spring cabbage is an off-season vegetable. In the vast northern regions, the adverse and climatic conditions are easily encountered in the early and late stages of the growth of spring cabbage, so the period that is really suitable for the growth of Chinese cabbage is short. If sowing is too early, the seedling age is too long, and the seedling temperature is lower than 12Â°C for a long period of time, it is very easy to induce the plants to pass through the vernalization stage, and flower bud differentiation occurs, thereby causing premature bolting and affecting the product quality. If sowing is too late, Chinese Cabbage grows at a high temperature (above 25Â°C) and long days in the late growth stage. This is in contrast to the cool conditions required by Chinese cabbage to form leafballs (suitable temperature for Chinese cabbage is 12~18Â°C). Actually or not, and because of the high temperature and heavy rain in the later period, it is faced with a serious risk of plant diseases and insect pests. Production and efficiency will be significantly reduced. From this we can see that, in addition to selecting good seeds, we must also reasonably determine the sowing date, select suitable cultivation methods, and perform detailed temperature management. Make good laws and good practices, to achieve high yield and quality.
4.1 timely sowing
The sowing date selection is mainly based on the variety of winter, the change of local temperature and the conditions of cultivation facilities. There are certain differences in bolting resistance and growth period of different spring Chinese cabbage varieties. For example, the spring nature of spring generals and strong springs is obviously stronger than Shanchunbai 1 and Luchunbai 1, but the growth period is slightly longer. For those varieties with strong winters and longer growth periods, they can be sown early. Different cultivation methods have different sowing dates. According to the experiment, under normal weather conditions, the Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province uses greenhouses or plastic greenhouses with a small arch to raise seedlings. The sowing time for planting in plastic greenhouses is early February. With warming greenhouse seedlings, small open arch shed in the open field or live broadcast in the small arch shed is generally in the middle and late February. This type of investment is less, and it is listed early and widely used. The sowing date for open-air mulching film covering direct seeding or open field cultivation is from March 20th to April 10th. In order to properly extend the spring cabbage supply period, in the appropriate period, different cultivation methods can be adopted to stage sowing, row open listing.
4.2 Scientific colonization
Premature colonization, prone to frost damage and early convulsions, colonization too late, affecting yield and quality. The establishment of the planting period should be such that the temperature of the growing environment and the ground temperature of 5cm can be stably passed through 10Â°C and 12Â°C, respectively, before being safely planted. The appropriate seedling age when planting is 20-25 d, and the suitable physiological seedling age is 4-5 true leaves. When planting seedlings, it is necessary to protect the soil, not to injure the roots, or to make it too deep, otherwise it will affect the growth of the seedlings and it is also easy to die. Immediately after planting watering, shorten the time of seedlings. After planting, it is best to use mulching, because the mulching can improve the temperature, water conservation, and improve the physical and chemical structure of the soil, thereby accelerating plant growth and early harvest. It also reduces labor and post-field management.
4.3 early heat preservation cultivation
Through early heat preservation and cultivation, it can directly improve the cabbage production environment, avoid the high temperature and early rain in the early stage of the external environment, prevent plant diseases and insect pests from occurring in the outside world, and plant and carry out protective production earlier. This not only effectively avoids the pests and diseases, but also The Chinese cabbage will be harvested and listed early to ease the off-season market supply and increase production and income. Therefore, the early temperature management of spring cabbage cultivation is very important. The temperature of the nursery bed is maintained at 20-25Â°C during the day, and the minimum is not lower than 12Â°C at night. After the planting, the cold insulation should also be taken care of to avoid the occurrence of low temperatures below 10Â°C. If the temperature of the greenhouse exceeds 25Â°C, it must be ventilated and cooled. From April 15 to 20, temperatures have risen steadily above 15Â°C under natural conditions. You can completely remove the film.
5, scientific fertilization, reasonable irrigation, improve disease resistance and eating quality
In the production of pollution-free cabbage, fertilization methods insisted on reusing basic fertilizer, combining basal fertilizer with topdressing, supplemented by the principle of foliar fertilizer application, and the types of fertilization adhered to the principle of organic fertilizer and supplemented by inorganic fertilizer. Pay attention to the nutrient balance of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrient elements in the soil and control the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. In order to reduce the nitrate content in Chinese cabbage, the application of nitrate fertilizer is prohibited. Spring cabbage has a short growing period and it is not suitable for seedlings. In addition to the application of base fertilizer, top dressing should be carried out as soon as possible, top dressing after slow seedlings, applying urea 10~15 kg per 667m2. In the early stage of the rosette, water is used to re-apply the heart rate, and every 667m2 is topped with 30kg of diammonium phosphate, 20~25kg of urea, and 10kg of potassium sulfate. During this period, 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate is used for foliar spray 2~3 times. It is more conducive to leaf growth and leaf formation. Do not have to top-dress the ball in the later period.
The watering of the Chinese cabbage should be done with shallow pouring, keeping the ground dry and seeing wet, preventing flooding and flooding, and reducing the occurrence of soft rot. Such as the use of mulch film under the dark irrigation, seepage irrigation, not only can save water, but also can reduce the humidity of the vegetable field, reduce the incidence of disease. Chinese cabbage needs to be watered 4 to 5 times during the entire growth period, and it is advisable to pour water in the early morning or early evening. Such as live broadcast should be combined with watering and fertilization, timely cultivating turfgrass, promote root development. Careful attention should be paid to the cultivator, and it is forbidden to mechanically damage the leaves and roots of Chinese cabbage to avoid causing soft rot.
6. Pest control
Spring cabbage has few diseases and pests and is mainly based on agricultural prevention. In the event of locust and cabbage caterpillar damage, high-efficiency, low-toxicity, short residue pesticides can be used for control. Anti-mosquitoes can be evenly sprayed with 40% dimethoate emulsion 1000~15000 times, and cabbagefly can be sprayed with Bt emulsion 300 times or 2.5% enemy-killed EC 3000~4000 times liquid spray. With spicy vegetable plant extracts such as taking garlic 1000g, add water to mash into the mud amount of kilograms per kilogram of water plus 5 kg of spray, control of aphids, cabbage caterpillar can also achieve better results. For the soft rot disease, in addition to the comprehensive prevention and control of cultivation measures, if you need to use drugs in the beginning of cabbage ball, use 72% of agricultural streptomycin 3000-4000 times solution, or neophytin 4000 times spray control. If there are other pests and diseases, targeted pesticides can be used for control. The use of pesticides and the number of applications must be strictly controlled standards, eliminate repeated and excessive use of drugs, strict implementation of safe isolation period. The safety interval for general drugs is 7-10 days, and no more than 3 consecutive administrations. After the pesticide residue period expires, it can be harvested and sold.
7, timely harvest
After about 50 days of general planting (live 60d), cabbage can reach 80% of the heart, and the supply market must be harvested in time. To prevent the late high temperature and rain, causing the ball to rot or bolting, reducing the value of food and goods. For varieties with poor growth uniformity and inconsistent maturation of leafballs, they can be harvested 2-3 times to ensure yield and quality.
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